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The Cessna Citation Series

v1.0.0 / 01 oct 18 / greg goebel

* In the late 1960s, the Cessna company entered the executive jet market with the twin-jet "Citation" -- which would prove successful, and lead to a diverse family of twin-jets that continues in production in the 21st century. This document provides a history and description of the Cessna Citation family.

Citation X


[1] CITATION ORIGINS / CITATION I & II
[2] CITATION V
[3] CITATIONJET SERIES
[4] CITATION III / VI / VII
[5] CITATION X
[6] CITATION EXCEL / SOVEREIGN / MUSTANG
[7] CITATION LATITUDE / LONGITUDE
[8] COMMENTS, SOURCES, & REVISION HISTORY

[1] CITATION ORIGINS / CITATION I & II

* In 1968, to keep up with the growing market for executive business jets, the Cessna corporation announced their entry, the "Fanjet 500", to be powered by twin Pratt & Whitney Canada (PWC) JT15D turbofans. The prototype performed its initial flight on 15 September 1969. It was certified as the "Model 500 Citation" in the fall of 1971, with customer deliveries following.

The Citation was an all-metal aircraft, with low-mounted tapered wings, a tapered tailplane, a swept tailfin with a forward fillet, and tricycle landing gear. All gear assemblies had single wheels, with the main gear retracting in the wings toward the fuselage. There were two crew, with five passenger seats being typical.

The development program was protracted, with considerable changes in the production machine from the initial prototype -- including a stretched forward fuselage, repositioned engine nacelles, a larger tail, and a tailplane with greater dihedral.

The Citation was designed with economy in mind, instead of performance; turboprop-class speed was seen as satisfactory. It proved popular, leading to introduction of the updated "Model 500 Citation I" in 1976. It featured uprated JT15D-1A engines with thrust reversers; wingspan stretched from 13.4 to 14.35 meters (43 feet 11 inches to 47 feet 1 inch); and increased maximum take-off (MTO) weight. It was later updated in production to JT15D-1B turbofans, with 9.77 kN (1,000 kgp / 2,200 lbf) thrust each.

Citation I

The next year, 1977, Cessna introduced the "Model 501 Citation I/SP" -- which was much the same, but configured for single-pilot operation. The standard Citation could also be flown by a single pilot who possessed the proper FAA qualification.


   CESSNA MODEL 500 CITATION I:
   ___________________   ____________________   ________________________
 
   spec                  metric                 english
   ___________________   ____________________   ________________________

   wingspan              14.35 meters           47 feet 1 inch
   wing area             25.9 sq_meters         278.5 sq_feet
   length                13.26 meters           43 feet 6 inches
   height                4.37 meters            14 feet 3 inches

   empty weight          3,008 kilograms        6,630 pounds
   MTO weight            5,375 kilograms        11,850 pounds

   maximum speed         750 KPH                465 MPH (405 KT)
   cruise speed          660 KPH                410 MPH (355 KT)
   service ceiling       12,500 meters          41,000 feet
   range, max fuel       2,460 kilometers       1,530 miles (1,328 NMI)
   ___________________   ____________________   ________________________

Total production of Citation, Citation I, and Citation I/SP machines was 689, not counting the prototype.

* The stretched "Model 550 Citation II" was announced in 1976, with initial flight on 31 January 1977; certification and initial deliveries were in 1978. The Citation II featured a fuselage stretch of 1.14 meters (3 feet 9 inches), giving a maximum passenger capacity of 10 seats, along with more baggage capacity. The Citation II also featured a wider wingspan, more fuel capacity, and PWC JT15D4 turbofans, providing 11 kN (1,130 kgp / 2,500 lbf) thrust each. The new engines were not only more powerful, increasing cruise speed, but also more fuel-efficient, increasing range. A single-pilot version, the "Citation II/SP", was also offered.

The Citation II led to the "Model S550 Citation S/II", which was announced in 1983, performed its initial flight on 14 February 1984, with certification and deliveries before the end of 1984. The Citation S/II improved on the Citation II by introducing a new "supercritical" wing -- this technology being introduced by Cessna on the "Citation III", discussed below -- as well improved JT15D4B turbofans -- with same baseline performance as their predecessors, but better high-altitude performance.


   CESSNA MODEL S550 CITATION S/II:
   ___________________   ____________________   ________________________
 
   spec                  metric                 english
   ___________________   ____________________   ________________________

   wingspan              15.9 meters            52 feet 2 inches
   wing area             31.83 sq_meters        342.6 sq_feet
   length                14.39 meters           47 feet 8 inches
   height                4.57 meters            15 feet

   empty weight          3,665 kilograms        8,060 pounds
   MTO weight            6,850 kilograms        15,100 pounds

   cruise speed          745 KPH                465 MPH (405 KT)
   service ceiling       13,100 meters          43,000 feet
   range, max fuel       3,700 kilometers       2,300 miles (2,000 NMI)
   ___________________   ____________________   ________________________

The Citation II and S/II were manufactured more or less in parallel to end of production in 1996, with 688 and 160 produced respectively.

Citation II Bravo

The Citation S/II was followed in turn by the "Model 550B Citation Bravo", with initial flight on 25 April 1995, certification in 1996, and deliveries in 1997. It was effectively an S/II, with the supercritical wing, but with PWC PW530A turbofans, new Honeywell Primus 1000 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) avionics, an updated interior, and revised landing gear. The new engines provided a significant increment in power, and were more reliable. 336 Bravos were built to end of production in 2006.

* The US Customs & Border Protection obtained ten Citation IIs, fitted with a multimode radar -- originally the AN/APG-66(V) from the F-16 fighter, later the Selex ES Vixen 500E -- and a forward-looking infrared (FLIR) imaging turret. These machines have seen extensive service in the US and Latin America.

Customs Citation II

The US Navy obtained 15 modified Citation IIs as the "T-47A", with the company designation of "Model 552", as radar trainers. The T-47A featured JT15D5 engines, shorter wings, multiple radar consoles and an AN/APQ-167 multimode radar system in a "thimble" nose radome, and multiple training consoles. All but one were lost in a hangar fire in Topeka, Kansas, in 1993. They were replaced with modified Rockwell T-39 Saberliners. A total of 1,164 Citation II-series aircraft was built.

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[2] CITATION V

* Having stretched the Citation I to come up with the Citation II, Cessna then stretched the Citation II to come up with the "Model 560 Citation V". A prototype performed its initial flight on 18 August 1987, with deliveries beginning in 1989.

The Citation V was stretched by 52 centimeters (20 inches), giving a maximum passenger capacity of 8 seats. It featured PWC JT15D-5A turbofans with 13.55 kN (1,380 kgp / 3,045 lbf) thrust each.


   CESSNA MODEL S560 CITATION V ULTRA:
   ___________________   ____________________   ________________________
 
   spec                  metric                 english
   ___________________   ____________________   ________________________

   wingspan              15.9 meters            52 feet 2 inches
   wing area             31.83 sq_meters        342.6 sq_feet
   length                14.91 meters           48 feet 11 inches
   height                4.57 meters            15 feet

   empty weight          4,260 kilograms        9,395 pounds
   MTO weight            7,395 kilograms        16,300 pounds

   cruise speed          795 KPH                495 MPH (430 KT)
   service ceiling       13,715 meters          45,000 feet
   range, max fuel       3,650 kilometers       2,255 miles (1,960 NMI)
   ___________________   ____________________   ________________________

262 Citation Vs were delivered to 1994. The Citation V led to refined variants, the first being the "Citation V Ultra", announced in 1993, with deliveries from 1994. It featured JT15D-5D engines with 13.6 kN (1,380 kgp / 3,045 lbf) thrust each, and Honeywell Primus 1000 EFIS avionics. 279 were delivered to 1999.

The Citation Ultra was replaced by the "Citation Encore", which was announced in 1998, with initial deliveries in 2000. It featured PWC PW535 turbofans, revised "trailing link" main landing gear with a softer touchdown, plus updated interior systems. The main gear track was also reduced, to improve ground handling, and better crosswind landing behavior. Wing de-icing was by hot air bleed, with a stall fence and small vortex generator vanes to improve stall characteristics.

Citation V Encore+

It had reduced fuel capacity, but better range due to the improved engines. A total of 168 were delivered to 2007, when it was replaced by the "Encore+", with PW535B engines, featuring "full authority digital engine control (FADEC)" and Rockwell Collins Pro Line 21 avionics. 65 were built to end of production in 2010.

* The US military obtained Citation V series machines for the light transport role, designations including:

They generally replaced older variants of the C-12 Huron (Beech King Air) in military service. The Pentagon also obtained five Citation Vs as the "OT-47B Tracker", kitted up with the same gear as used by the Customs Citation IIs.

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[3] CITATIONJET SERIES

* The Citation V and its subvariants were the end of the line for the series begun with the original Citation. In 1989, Cessna announced a rethinking of that design series, with the initial flight of the first "Model 525 CitationJet" on 29 April 1991, certification in 1992, and initial deliveries in 1993.

The CitationJet used the Citation II's forward fuselage, but was otherwise largely redesigned. It featured an underslung wing carry-through section, giving more internal space, with four passenger seats; it did have a straight wing, though of a new supercritical design with a laminar cross section, while adding a distinctive tee tail. It was powered by twin Williams FJ44-1A turbofans, with 8.5 kN (850 kgp / 1,900 lbf) thrust each. It could be flown by a single pilot.

CitationJet CJ1+

The baseline CitationJet was refined as the "CitationJet CJ1", which retained the FJ-44-1A engines, but had a modernized EFIS avionics suite, and a modest increase in MTO weight. It was followed in turn by the "CitationJet CJ1+" -- which featured FJ-44-1P engines, with FADEC, and a Collins Pro Line 21 avionics suite.

The CJ1 led in turn to the "CitationJet M2", announced in 2011, with initial flight in 2012, and introduction in 2013. The M2 was powered by FJ44-1AP-21, with more cruise thrust and better "hot & high" performance; it also had a Garmin 3000 avionics suite, and a new cabin layout.

* The original CitationJet led to the "Model 525A CitationJet CJ2", which featured a 150-centimeter (5-foot) fuselage stretch and Williams FJ44-2C turbofans. Initial deliveries were in 2000.

The "CitationJet CJ2+" was delivered from 2006, featuring FJ44-3A-24 engines with FADEC, as well as updated avionics. Production ended in 2016.

The "CitationJet CJ3" first flew on 17 April 2003, with initial deliveries in late 2004. It was stretched by 1.07 meters (42 inches), giving standard seating for six passengers, and had Rockwell Collins avionics.

CitationJet CJ4

The "CitationJet CJ4" first flew on 5 May 2008, with initial deliveries in 2010. The CJ4 was further stretched by 66 centimeters (26 inches), and featured the modestly-swept wing of the Citation Sovereign (see below). By June 2017, over 2,000 CitationJets of all variants had been delivered.

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[4] CITATION III / VI / VII

* In 1979, Cessna announced a departure from the existing Citation design series, working on a derivative that would have higher performance and transcontinental range. The first of two flight prototypes of the "Model 650 Citation III" performed its initial flight on 30 May 1979, with deliveries from 1983. The Citation III featured:

The first production machine, which was owned by golf star, and enthusiastic pilot, Arnold Palmer, set a number of "time to altitude" and speed records -- including a flight from Gander in Newfoundland to Le Bourget in Paris in 5 hours 13 minutes.


   CESSNA MODEL 650 CITATION III:
   ___________________   ____________________   ________________________
 
   spec                  metric                 english
   ___________________   ____________________   ________________________

   wingspan              16.31 meters           53 feet 6 inches
   wing area             29.0 sq_meters         312 sq_feet
   length                16.9 meters            55 feet 5 inches
   height                5.12 meters            16 feet 10 inches

   empty weight          5,355 kilograms        11,810 pounds
   MTO weight            9,980 kilograms        22,000 pounds

   maximum speed         910 KPH                565 MPH (490 KT)
   cruise speed          875 KPH                545 MPH (470 KT)
   service ceiling       16,000 meters          51,000 feet
   range                 4,350 kilometers       2,700 miles (2,350 NMI)
   ___________________   ____________________   ________________________

Citation III

202 Citation IIIs were delivered to end of production in 1992. No "Citation IV" was produced; it was planned as a stretched follow-on to the Citation III, but it was canceled without being flown. Of course, the Citation V was a stretched Citation II.

The Citation III was followed by the cost-reduced "Citation VI", which was produced from 1991 to 1995 -- with 39 built -- as well as the more powerful "Citation VII", with TFE731-4R turbofans, providing 18.2 kN (1,850 kgp / 4,080 lbf) thrust. The Citation VII was produced from 1992 through 2000 -- with 119 built.

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[5] CITATION X

* The original Citation had been designed for docility and economy, with performance comparable to that of turboprop executive aircraft. Although the product was successful, the low performance led to gibes about the "Slowtation" or "Nearjet", that it was prone to "bird strikes from the rear". Cessna management decided to put the sneers to be for good, announcing the high-performance "Model 750 Citation X" in 1990. Initial prototype flight was on 21 December 1993, with certification and initial deliveries in 1996 -- the development program having suffered from a number of delays. The first customer was, of course, Arnold Palmer.

The Citation X was largely a new design, though it did have a fuselage derived from that of the Citation III, with the same cross-section, and had a similar general configuration: a low-wing executive jet with a tee tail and all-swept flight surfaces, with twin turbofans on the rear fuselage, and tricycle landing gear. The fuselage was "area ruled", avoiding abrupt changes in overall cross-section, which reduced drag.

Citation X

The Citation X had little parts commonality with the Citation III, and the new machine was clearly racier in appearance, emphasized by an underslung wing with a 37-degree sweep at quarter-chord, and had well more powerful Rolls-Royce / Allison AE 3007 turbofans. Early production used AE 3007C1 engines, with 28.7 kN (2,920 kgp / 6,440 lbf) thrust each, while later production used AE 3007C1 engines with 30.1 kN (3,065 kgp / 6,765 lbf) thrust each.

The Citation X was the first in the line to use Rolls-Royce engines. They featured larger nacelles, with wide intakes. It was also the first to have fully-powered flight controls, mostly using hydraulic drive. Each wing featured an aileron, three-segment Fowler flaps, two-segment leading-edge slats, and five spoilers -- being use for roll control, as airbrakes, or lift dumpers. The tailplane was all-moving, being used for pitch control; it had rear trimmers instead of elevators. The rudder had two sections.

All flight controls were hydraulically actuated -- except for the upper rudder segment, which was electrically controlled -- with manual reversion in case of system failure. The cockpit was based on the Honeywell Primus 2000 EFIS avionics system, with five CRT displays.


   CESSNA MODEL 750 CITATION X:
   ___________________   ____________________   ________________________
 
   spec                  metric                 english
   ___________________   ____________________   ________________________

   wingspan              19.39 meters           63 feet 7 inches
   wing area             48.96 sq_meters        527 sq_feet
   length                22.05 meters           72 feet 4 inches
   height                5.85 meters            19 feet 2 inches

   empty weight          9,730 kilograms        21,450 pounds
   MTO weight            16,195 kilograms       35,700 pounds

   max cruise speed      950 KPH                590 MPH (510 KT)
   service ceiling       15,550 meters          51,000 feet
   range, max fuel       6,020 kilometers       3,740 miles (3,255 NMI)
   ___________________   ____________________   ________________________

With improved aerodynamics and more power, the Citation X could cruise at high subsonic speed. Arnold Palmer set a category speed record in his Citation X in September 1997, averaging 876 KPH (544 MPH / 473 KT) on a closed course of 5,000 kilometers (3,105 miles / 2,700 NMI), in under six hours. In that same year, the Citation X won the prestigious Collier Trophy, awarded by the US National Aeronautic Association.

From 2002, the Citation X was upgraded with engines providing 5% more thrust, an increase in MTO of 180 kilograms (400 pounds), and the latest Honeywell avionics suite. In 2010, Cessna released a bigger make-over, originally designated the "Citation Ten", but sold as the "Citation X+". Initial flight of the first Citation X+ was on 17 January 2012, with customer deliveries later that year.

The Citation X+ featured:

The Citation X series ended production in 2018, after manufacture of 338 machines.

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[6] CITATION EXCEL / SOVEREIGN / MUSTANG

* The Citation X was something of a "hot rod", and was intended for buyers willing to pay the price for it. In 1994, Cessna announced a new design, a follow-on to the lower-cost Citation VII that leveraged off the Citation X -- with the first prototype of "Model 560XL Citation Excel" -- or just "XL" -- performing its initial flight on 29 February 1996.

The Excel was a hybrid design, featuring the wide cabin of the Citation X, shortened down -- the result resembling a Citation III fuselage -- mating it to the unswept supercritical wing, based on that of the Citation V Ultra, and the tail from the Citation V. The Excel was powered by twin Pratt & Whitney Canada PW500 turbofans; an APU was optional. It had a Honeywell avionics system with three CRTs. The Excel could seat six to eight passengers in an executive configuration, and up to 9 in a high-density configuration.

A total of 308 Citation Excels was built before production switched in 2004 to the updated "Citation XLS", with Besides a glass cockpit based on the upgraded PW545B turbofans, and a Honeywell Primus 1000 EFIS avionics system, with three flat-panel displays.

Citation XLS+

330 XLS machines were built up to the introduction of the "Citation XLS+" in 2008, featuring PW545C turbofans with FADEC, providing 18.32 kN (1,879 kgp / 4,120 lbf) thrust each; a Collins Pro Line 21 avionics system, with four flat panel displays; and a "pointier" nose like that of the Citation X. It remains in production.


   CESSNA CITATION MODEL 560XLS+:
   ___________________   ____________________   ________________________
 
   spec                  metric                 english
   ___________________   ____________________   ________________________

   wingspan              17.17 meters           56 feet 4 inches
   wing area             48.96 sq_meters        527 sq_feet
   length                16 meters              52 feet 6 inches
   height                5.23 meters            17 feet 2 inches

   empty weight          5,085 kilograms        12,800 pounds
   MTO weight            19,165 kilograms       20,200 pounds

   cruise speed          815 KPH                505 MPH (440 KT)
   service ceiling       13,715 meters          45,000 feet
   range, max fuel       3,440 kilometers       2,140 miles (1,860 NMI)
   ___________________   ____________________   ________________________

* The Excel series led to the "Model 680 Citation Sovereign", which was announced in 1998, made its initial flight in February 2002, and went into service in 2004. The Sovereign was effectively an Excel with a fuselage stretched by 2 meters (6 feet 7 inches), and a new-design wing, with a sweep of 16.3 degrees at quarter-chord. The Sovereign is powered by twin PW306C turbofans, with 25.7 kN (2,615 kgp / 5,770 lbf) thrust each. It features a Honeywell Primus Epic glass cockpit, with four flat-panel displays.

Citation Sovereign

   CESSNA CITATION MODEL 680 CITATION SOVEREIGN+:
   ___________________   ____________________   ________________________
 
   spec                  metric                 english
   ___________________   ____________________   ________________________

   wingspan              22.04 meters           72 feet 4 inches
   wing area             50.4 sq_meters         543 sq_feet
   length                19.35 meters           63 feet 6 inches
   height                6.20 meters            20 feet 4 inches

   empty weight          8,270 kilograms        8,271 pounds
   MTO weight            13,960 kilograms       30,775 pounds

   cruise speed          850 KPH                530 MPH (460 KT)
   service ceiling       14,000 meters          47,000 feet
   take-off field        1,075 meters           3,530 feet
   landing field         790 meters             2,600 feet
   range                 5,925 kilometers       3,680 miles (3,200 NMI)
   ___________________   ____________________   ________________________

The improved "Sovereign+" was introduced in 2012; it featured winglets, updated PW306D engines with 26 kN (2,655 kgp / 5,850 lbf) thrust, and new Garmin 5000 flight deck.

* Cessna also developed a "Very Light Jet (VLJ)", the "Model 510 Citation Mustang", to complement the larger members of the Citation family. The Mustang was announced in 2002, with initial flight on 13 April 2005, and deliveries from 2006.

Citation Mustang

The Mustang had the same general configuration as other members of the Citation family: low-wing executive aircraft, with an engine on each side of the tail. It had a swept wing and a tee tail. It was powered by PWC PW615F turbofans with 6.5 kN (660 kgp / 1,460 lbf) each. There was a door on the front left, and an emergency exit over the right wing. Standard seating was for four passengers, though an additional passenger seat could be squeezed in. A toilet was standard.


   CESSNA CITATION MODEL 510 CITATION MUSTANG:
   ___________________   ____________________   ________________________
 
   spec                  metric                 english
   ___________________   ____________________   ________________________

   wingspan              13.16 meters           43 feet 2 inches
   wing area             50.4 sq_meters         543 sq_feet
   length                12.37 meters           40 feet 7 inches
   height                4.09 meters            13 feet 5 inches

   empty weight          2,540 kilograms        5,600 pounds
   MTO weight            3,930 kilograms        8,645 pounds

   cruise speed          630 KPH                390 MPH (340 KT)
   service ceiling       12,500 meters          41,000 feet
   take-off field        950 meters             3,110 feet
   landing field         730 meters             2,380 feet
   range                 2,160 kilometers       1,345 miles (1,165 NMI)
   ___________________   ____________________   ________________________

An enhanced version of the Mustang, the "High Sierra", was introduced in 2010 -- featuring high-end cabin furnishings, plus augmented avionics, including a synthetic vision system. The Mustang went out of production in 2017, 479 having been produced. The VLJ concept turned out to be flawed, with the lower price of the small jets not compensating for their lack of capability.

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[7] CITATION LATITUDE / LONGITUDE

* In 2008, Cessna announced the development of what was going to be the largest member of the Citation family to that time, the machine being named the "Columbus", with the latest technology, including new PWC PW810 turbofans. First deliveries were to be in 2014 -- but thanks to the "Great Recession", aircraft sales were soft, and so the Columbus was canceled in 2009.

Citation Latitude

As a result, the next Citation would be the "Model 680A Citation Latitude", which was announced in 2011, with initial flight on 18 February 2014, with first deliveries in 2015. It was effectively a Sovereign with a new fuselage, providing stand-up room and a flat floor. It is powered by twin PWC PW306D1 turbofans with 26.3 kN (2,680 kgp / 5,905 lbf) each. Standard seating is for six passengers, with a maximum of nine. It has a Garmin 5000 flight deck. Well over a hundred have been delivered to date.


   CESSNA CITATION MODEL 680A CITATION LATITUDE:
   ___________________   ____________________   ________________________
 
   spec                  metric                 english
   ___________________   ____________________   ________________________

   wingspan              22.04 meters           72 feet 4 inches
   wing area             50.4 sq_meters         543 sq_feet
   length                18.97 meters           62 feet 3 inches
   height                6.38 meters            20 feet 11 inches

   empty weight          8,460 kilograms        8,655 pounds
   MTO weight            13,870 kilograms       30,800 pounds

   cruise speed          815 KPH                505 MPH (440 KT)
   service ceiling       13,715 meters          45,000 feet
   take-off field        1,090 meters           3,580 feet
   landing field         755 meters             2,480 feet
   range                 5,000 kilometers       3,105 miles (2,700 NMI)
   ___________________   ____________________   ________________________

* The Latitude led in its turn to the "Model 700 Citation Longitude", which was announced in 2012, and made its initial flight on 8 October 2016. Initial deliveries were in 2018. It is effectively a revival of the Columbus, based on the fuselage of the Latitude, stretched to add a seat row, with a new wing -- featuring a sweep of 28.6 degrees at quarter-chord plus winglets, and a tee tail.

Citation Longitude

It is powered by Honeywell HTF7700L turbofans, with 33.6 kN (3,425 kgp / 7,550 lbf) thrust each. Standard seating is for eight passengers, though 12 can be accommodated. It has a Garmin 5000 flight deck.


   CESSNA CITATION MODEL 700 CITATION LONGITUDE:
   ___________________   ____________________   ________________________
 
   spec                  metric                 english
   ___________________   ____________________   ________________________

   wingspan              22.04 meters           72 feet 4 inches
   wing area             49.9 sq_meters         537 sq_feet
   length                22.3 meters            73 feet 2 inches
   height                5.92 meters            19 feet 5 inches

   empty weight          8,460 kilograms        18,655 pounds
   MTO weight            17,915 kilograms       39,500 pounds

   cruise speed          880 KPH                550 MPH (470 KT)
   service ceiling       13,715 meters          45,000 feet
   take-off field        1,495 meters           4,900 feet
   landing field         1,035 meters           3,400 feet
   range                 6,480 kilometers       4,030 miles (3,500 NMI)
   ___________________   ____________________   ________________________

* Following the Longitude, in 2015 Cessna announced the "Citation Hemisphere", which would be the biggest member of the Citation family. It was to be powered by advanced SNECMA Silvercrest turbofans -- but the Silvercrest program ran into problems, throwing the Hemisphere program into doubt. Cessna officials are monitoring SNECMA's progress on fixing the Silvercrest's problems, and will axe the Hemisphere if the engine can't be made to work right.

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[8] COMMENTS, SOURCES, & REVISION HISTORY

* As concerns copyrights and permissions for this document, all illustrations and images credited to me are public domain. I reserve all rights to my writings. However, if anyone does want to make use of my writings, just contact me, and we can chat about it. I'm lenient in giving permissions, usually on the basis of being properly credited.

Citation Sovereign

The primary source for the first release was the online Wikipedia. The second release will flesh out the details.

* Revision history:

   v1.0 / 01 oct 18 / gvg
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